PMID: Arch Pharm Res. 2015 Feb ;38(2):193-202. Epub 2014 Apr 23. PMID: 24752860 Abstract Title: Antiviral effects of Phyllanthus urinaria containing corilagin against human enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16 in vitro. Abstract: Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are major causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) especially in infants and children under 5 years of age. Despite recent outbreaks of HFMD, there are no approved therapeutics against EV71 and CA16 infection. Moreover, in a small percentage of cases, the disease progression can lead to serious complications of the central nervous system. In this study, we investigated the antiviral effect of corilagin and Phyllanthus urinaria extract, which contains corilagin as a major component, on EV71 and CA16 infection in vitro. Our results indicate that corilagin reduces the cytotoxicity induced by EV71 or CA16 on Vero cells with and IC50 value of 5.6 and 32.33μg/mL, respectively. We confirmed the presence of corilagin in EtOAc and BuOH fractions from P. urinaria extract and this correlated with antiviral activity of the fractions against EV71 or CA16. Future studies will be required to confirm the antiviral activity of corilagin and P. urinaria extractin vivo. Challenging a model with a lethal dose of viral infection will be required to test this. Collectively, our work provides potential candidates for the development of novel drugs to treat HFMD.
It might just be that I’m spending a lot of time outdoors with my kids and usually holding one of them, but this summer has seemed unusually hot to me.
Not only has it been hot, but the humidity and heat index seem to be competing to see which can break the most records. While some days I’d rather just camp out inside (in an ice bath), summer is time for the sprinkler running, slip and sliding, hiking and zip-lines, so outside it is.
A Cooling Spray
A few weeks ago when we took a break from working outside to reapply homemade bug spray and drink a gallon of water, I noticed that the bug spray left a cooling sensation on the skin and helped it seem not so hot.
I realized that the witch hazel and the peppermint essential oil were both naturally cooling and was surprised how refreshing it was.
I decided to make a spray that would just be cooling and refreshing for times when I wanted to cool off without smelling like a citronella candle…. the result was this cooling spray, and I’ve found that it also works really well for helping take the “itch” out of bug bites and the burn out of sunburn.
This spray uses only three natural ingredients that are beneficial to the skin:
- Aloe Vera– Aloe is naturally anti-inflammatory and great for skin. It is moisturizing without being oily and is perfect for those with normal or slightly oily skin. Rich in nutrients and antioxidants, it is often used in anti-aging skin products as well.
- Witch Hazel– Though I was first introduced to witch hazel after the birth of my first child, when I was given a container of round cloths soaked in witch hazel and told to use them on hemorrhoids (which I didn’t even have). Though we didn’t get off to the best start, I’ve grown to love witch hazel for its uses in skin care and natural remedies. It is slightly antiseptic, which makes it cooling and great for skin. In fact, it is often used to remove excess oil and fight blemishes and blackheads. Its ability to shrink blood vessels and reduce inflammation is what makes it beneficial for hemorrhoids and also for cooling the body.
- Peppermint Essential oil– (and optional lavender)- These can actually be left out, especially for pregnant women or small children, as peppermint oil use can be controversial. The witch hazel alone can be cooling, but the peppermint adds extra cooling power. If you do use peppermint, it is important to only use the small amount recommended as too much peppermint or menthol can be quite uncomfortable (remind me to tell you about the time I rubbed biofreeze on my entire body to try to stop the achiness from the flu…disaster). Most aromatherapists would say that in this small concentration, peppermint is generally considered safe for general use, but I’d definitely recommend checking with an aromatherapist or qualified practitioner before using this or any essential oil while pregnant/nursing or on small children. If you don’t feel comfortable using peppermint essential oil, you could also infuse dried or fresh peppermint leaf into the witch hazel for a week or so before making this spray. To do this, add 3 tablespoons of dried mint to a glass jar and cover with 1/2 cup of witch hazel. Cap tightly and stir daily for 1-6 weeks. Strain and use the witch hazel.
Cooling Spray Ingredients
- 1/4 cup aloe vera gel (natural with no added preservatives- I use this one)
- 1/4 cup witch hazel (natural with no harmful ingredients- I use this one)
- 2-3 drops of peppermint essential oil (and 10 drops of lavender essential oil, optional)
Cooling Spray Instructions
- Combine all ingredients in a glass spray bottle.
- Shake or stir until well mixed and blended.
- Spray as needed to help cool off in the summer or on bug bites or sunburn.
Has it been hot where you live? If you live on the other side of the world, can you send us some cool weather soon?
PMID: Chin J Integr Med. 2015 Apr 13. Epub 2015 Apr 13. PMID: 25869593 Abstract Title: Extract from Phyllanthus urinaria L. Inhibits hepatitis B virus replication and expression in hepatitis B virus transfection model in vitro. Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of the extract from Phyllanthus urinaria L. on hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication and expression in HBV transient transfection model in vitro.METHODS: The eukaryotic expression plasmid pHBV1.1, which contains 1.1-fold-overlength genome of HBV, was transfected into the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, to establish and assess the HBV transient transfection model. The extract from Phyllanthus urinaria L. was prepared in different concentrations and methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium was used to detect the maximum nontoxic concentration of the drug. The extract from Phyllanthus urinaria L. were added into the transfected cell, at the concentrations of 0.8, 0.2 and 0.05 g/L, respectively. Four days after drug application, enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay was used to detect the concentration of HBsAg in the supernatants, Southern blot was applied to analyze HBV DNA level, and Western blot was used to detect the expression of HBcAg in cells.RESULTS: After the transfection of plasmid pHBV1.1 into HepG2 cells, the concentration of HBsAg in supernatants was increased obviously as compared with that of the normal cells (P
PMID: BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015 ;15:255. Epub 2015 Jul 29. PMID: 26220282 Abstract Title: Inhibitory effect of Phyllanthus urinaria L. extract on the replication of lamivudine-resistant hepatitis B virus in vitro. Abstract: BACKGROUND: Long-term treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) with nucleos(t)ide analogs results in the emergence of drug-resistant hepatitis B virus (HBV) harboring mutations in the polymerase (P) gene. The Phyllanthus extract has anti-HBV activity; however, its antiviral activity against lamivudine (LMV)-resistant mutants has not been examined.METHODS: HBV harboring LMV-resistant mutations (rtM204I, rtM204V, and rtM204S) in the P gene at the YMDD ((203)tyrosine-methionine-aspartate-aspartate(206)) reverse transcriptase (RT) active site were generated and their sensitivity to Phyllanthus urinaria koreanis extract examined. Southern blotting and real-time PCR were used to determine the concentration of plant extract required to inhibit HBV DNA synthesis by 50 and 90 % (EC50 and EC90, respectively). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the EC50 of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV core antigen (HBcAg) secretion, and the 50 % cytotoxic concentration of the extract was measured in a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Real-time RT-PCR was used to measure mRNA expression levels.RESULTS: The expression of intracellular HBV DNAs in HBV WT- or mutant-transfected HepG2 cells decreased upon treatment with Phyllanthus extract. The secretion of HBsAg and HBcAg also fell in a dose-dependent manner. Phyllanthus extract induced interferon-beta (IFN-β), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA expression in HBV WT-transfected HepG2 cells, possibly via activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases and c-jun N-terminal kinases and the induction of retinoic acid inducible gene-I, toll-like receptor 3, myeloid differentiationprimary response gene 88, and/or tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 gene expression. HBV transfection in the absence of extract or exposure of cells to extract alone did not trigger these signaling cascades.CONCLUSIONS: Phyllanthus extract inhibited HBV DNA synthesis and HBsAg and HBcAg secretion by replicating cells harboring HBV wild-type and LMV-resistant mutants, likely by inducing the expression of IFN-β, COX-2, and IL-6. These data indicate that Phyllanthus extract may be useful as an alternative therapeutic agent for the treatment of drug-resistant CHB patients.
PMID: PLoS One. 2015 ;10(5):e0127886. Epub 2015 May 26. PMID: 26011304 Abstract Title: Higher urinary bisphenol A concentration is associated with unexplained recurrent miscarriage risk: evidence from a case-control study in eastern China. Abstract: BACKGROUND: Evidence about the association between Bisphenol A (BPA) and the risk of recurrent miscarriage (RM) in human being is still limited.OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association of urinary BPA concentrations with RM in human being.METHODS: A hospital-based 1:2 matched case-control study on RM was carried out in Suzhou and Kunshan in Jiangsu Province in China between August 2008 and November 2011. Total urinary BPA concentrations in 264 eligible urine samples (102 RM patients and 162 controls) were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The Wilcoxon test and conditional logistic regression were used to estimate the differences between the groups and odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI), respectively.RESULTS: The median± IQR (interquartile range) (P75-P25) values of non-creatinine-adjusted total urinary BPA levels in the RM patients and the controls were 1.66 ± 3.69 ng/ml and 0.58 ± 1.07 ng/ml, respectively (0.98 ± 2.67 μg/g Cr (creatinine) and 0.40 ± 0.77 μg/g Cr. The adjusted BPA level was significantly higher in the RM patients than in the controls (Wilcoxon test, Z = 4.476, P
PMID: PLoS One. 2015;10(7):e0133238. Epub 2015 Jul 29. PMID: 26222054 Abstract Title: Directed Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells into Prostate Organoids In Vitro and its Perturbation by Low-Dose Bisphenol A Exposure. Abstract: Studies using rodent and adult human prostate stem-progenitor cell models suggest that developmental exposure to the endocrine disruptor Bisphenol-A (BPA) can predispose to prostate carcinogenesis with aging. Unknown at present is whether the embryonic human prostate is equally susceptible to BPA during its natural developmental window. To address this unmet need, we herein report the construction of a pioneer in vitro human prostate developmental model to study the effects of BPA. The directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) into prostatic organoids in a spatial system was accomplished with precise temporal control of growth factors and steroids. Activin-induced definitive endoderm was driven to prostate specification by combined exposure to WNT10B and FGF10. Matrigel culture for 20-30 days in medium containing R-Spondin-1, Noggin, EGF, retinoic acid and testosterone was sufficient for mature prostate organoid development. Immunofluorescence and gene expression analysis confirmed that organoids exhibited cytodifferentiation and functional properties of the human prostate. Exposure to 1 nM or 10 nM BPA throughout differentiation culture disturbed early morphogenesis in a dose-dependent manner with 1 nM BPA increasing and 10 nM BPA reducing the number of branched structures formed. While differentiation of branched structures to mature organoids seemed largely unaffected by BPA exposure, the stem-like cell population increased, appearing as focal stem cell nests that have not properly entered lineage commitment rather than the rare isolated stem cells found in normally differentiated structures. These findings provide the first direct evidence that low-dose BPA exposure targets hESC and perturbs morphogenesis as the embryonic cells differentiate towards human prostate organoids, suggesting that the developing human prostate may be susceptible to disruption by in utero BPA exposures.
PMID: PLoS One. 2014 ;9(10):e110509. Epub 2014 Oct 22. PMID: 25337790 Abstract Title: Holding thermal receipt paper and eating food after using hand sanitizer results in high serum bioactive and urine total levels of bisphenol A (BPA). Abstract: Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting environmental contaminant used in a wide variety of products, and BPA metabolites are found in almost everyone’s urine, suggesting widespread exposure from multiple sources. Regulatory agencies estimate that virtually all BPA exposure is from food and beverage packaging. However, free BPA is applied to the outer layer of thermal receipt paper present in very high (∼20 mg BPA/g paper) quantities as a print developer. Not taken into account when considering thermal paper as a source of BPA exposure is that some commonly used hand sanitizers, as well as other skin care products, contain mixtures of dermal penetration enhancing chemicals that can increase by upto 100 fold the dermal absorption of lipophilic compounds such as BPA. We found that when men and women held thermal receipt paper immediately after using a hand sanitizer with penetration enhancing chemicals, significant free BPA was transferred to their hands and then to French fries that were eaten, and the combination of dermal and oral BPA absorption led to a rapid and dramatic average maximum increase (Cmax) in unconjugated (bioactive) BPA of ∼7 ng/mL in serum and ∼20 µg total BPA/g creatinine in urine within 90 min. The default method used by regulatory agencies to test for hazards posed by chemicals is intra-gastric gavage. For BPA this approach results in less than 1% of the administered dose being bioavailable in blood. It also ignores dermal absorption as well as sublingual absorption in the mouth that both bypass first-pass liver metabolism. The elevated levels of BPA that we observed due to holding thermal paper after using a product containing dermal penetration enhancing chemicals have been related to an increased risk for a wide range of developmental abnormalities as well as diseases in adults.